*Conducted in terms:*2021/22L, 2022/23L, 2023/24L

*ISCED code:*0229

*ECTS credits:*3

*Language:*English

*Organized by:*Faculty of Philosophy and Social Sciences (for: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń)

# Logic as a Tool 2400-OG-EN-LT

The objective of the course is presentation of logic that locates its subject in historical and philosophical context as this branch of knowledge which provides tools for solving problems which human thought have faced since antiquity until contemporary times.

Particular emphasis will be on the role of logic in analysis of deductive sciences, their philosophy and methodology.

Complete course embraces the following topics.

1. The subject of logic, logic as theory of reasoning.

2. Branches of logic and their characteristics: semantics, syntacticts, methodology of sciences, formal logic.

3. Logical fallacies: equivocation, amphiboly, inconsistency.

4. Reasonings, models of reasonings.

5. Consequence, analytical consequence, logi cal consequence.

6. Justification of sentences, deductive justifications, proofs.

7. Notions of a true sentence, logical value and logical proposition/sentence.

8 Logical constans: negation, conjunction, disjunction, material implication, material equivalence. Extensional and intensional connectives. De Morgan’s laws. Conditionals and material implication. Quantifiers.

9. Foundations of the theory of logical consequence.

10. Formal proofs.

## Total student workload

## Learning outcomes - knowledge

## Learning outcomes - skills

## Learning outcomes - social competencies

## Teaching methods

## Expository teaching methods

- participatory lecture

- description

## Exploratory teaching methods

- practical

## Type of course

## Prerequisites

## Course coordinators

## Assessment criteria

The criteria for the evaluation of students:

1. multiple-choice test plus problems and exercises to solve,

2. one larger homework after first five meetings,

3. activity,

4. class attendance – one absence is accepted.

Final grade will be estimated according to the following criteria:

1. Partial grades: homework graded according to the standard scale: from 2 to 5.

2. Final test graded according to the standard scale.

3. Activity: each class meeting may be rewarded with 1 point for activity. Points will be converted to grades as follows:

• 0 pts. – 2,

• 1-2 pts. – 3,

• 3-4 pts. – 3+,

• 5-6 pts. – 4,

• 7-8 pts. – 4+

• 9-10 pts. – 5.

Total grade: 25% activity, 25% homework, 50% final test.

## Practical placement

NA

## Bibliography

1. D. Hofstadter Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid, Penguin, 1999

2. M. Sainsbury Logical Forms: An Introduction to Philosophical Logic, Wiley-Blackwell, 2000

3. W.V.O. Quine Philosophy of logic, Harvard University Press, 2009 (2nd edition)

## Additional information

Additional information (*registration* calendar, class conductors,
*localization and schedules* of classes), might be available in the USOSweb system: